Gastrointestinal and Pancratohepatobiliary Cancers: A Comprehensive Review on Epidemiology and Risk Factors Worldwide

Ahmad Hormati, Zahra Hajrezaei, Kimia Jazi, Zahra Aslani Kolur, Sajjad Rezvan, Sajjad Ahmadpour



Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused a global pandemic. Since its start, widespread safety measures have been adopted by nations worldwide. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis are two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a common inflammatory illness with a high worldwide incidence. Its clinical symptoms include stomach discomfort, diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss. Genetics, microbes, cigarette smoking, appendectomy, lack of personal hygiene, using anti-inflammatory agents, vitamin D deficiency, and stress are the main risk factors for IBD. COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns about the exacerbation of COVID clinical manifestations in patients with IBD and increasing the risk of mortality. During COVID-19 pandemic, intestinal inflammation, and promoting adherence need to be controlled using medications and vaccinations as a primary goal. In this review, we reviewed unique concerns about IBD risk in the population as well as management of the disease, and the effectiveness of vaccination during COVID-19 pandemic.


Epidemiology, Gastrointestinal cancer, Lifestyle, Mortality

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