Levofloxacin+Tetracycline Quadruple Regimen for Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori: a Multicenter Multinational Randomized Controlled Trial

Pezhman Alavi nejad, Morteza Nayebi, Abazar Parsi, Eman Abdelsameea, Mohammed Hussien Ahmed, Ahmad Hormati, Dao Viet Hang, Mehdi Pezeshgi Modarres, Bahman Cheraghian, Siamak Baghaee, Tahmine Farbod Ara, Quang Trung Tran, Nitin Shanker Behl, Seyed Jalal Hashemi, Mohammed Alboraie, Saif Salman, Le Nha, Árpád V Patai, Eskandar Hajiani, Ali Akbar Abravesh



The ideal combination regimen for Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication has not yet been determined and the success rate of HP eradication has been extensively reduced worldwide due to increasing antibiotic resistance. So this multinational multi-center randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of tetracycline +levofloxacin for HP eradication.


During a 6-month period, all of the cases with HP infection in eight referral tertiary centers of three countries were included and randomly allocated to receive either tetracycline +levofloxacin or clarithromycin plus amoxicillin quadruple regimen for two weeks. For all of the participants, pantoprazole was continued for 4 more weeks and after one to two weeks of off-therapy, they underwent urea breath test C13 to prove eradication.


 Overall 788 patients were included (358 male (45.4%), average age 44.2 years). They were diagnosed as having non-ulcer dyspepsia (516 cases, 65.5%), peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (234 cases, 29.69%), and intestinal metaplasia (38 cases, 4.8%). Racially 63.1% were Caucasian, 14.5% Arab, 15.6% African, and 6.1% Asian.  The participants were randomly allocated to groups A and B to receive either tetracycline+Levofloxacin or clarithromycin.

Among groups A and B in Intention to treat (ITT) And per protocol (PP) analysis, 75.2% & 82.1% (285 cases) and 67.5% & 70.1% (276 cases) of participants achieved eradication, respectively (P=0.0001). The complete compliance rate in groups A and B were 84.4% and 83.6%, respectively. During the study, 33.5% of the participants in group A (127 cases) reported side effects while the complication rate among group B was 27.9% (114 cases, P=0.041). The most common complaints among groups A and B were nausea and vomiting (12.6% & 9.3%) and abdominal pain (4.48% & 2.68%), respectively. The rate of severe complications that caused discontinuation of medication in groups A and B were 2.1% and 1.46%, respectively (P=679).   In subgroup analysis, the eradication rates of tetracycline+levofloxacin among patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, PUD, and intestinal metaplasia were 79.4%, 88.1%, and 73.9%, respectively. These figures in group B (clarithromycin base) were 71.3%, 67.6%, and 61.5% respectively (P= 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.043).


Overall, the combination of tetracycline+levofloxacin is more efficient for HP eradication in comparison with clarithromycin+amoxicillin despite more complication rate. In areas with a high rate of resistance to clarithromycin, this therapeutic regimen could be an ideal choice for HP eradication, especially among those who were diagnosed with PUD.


Helicobacter Pylori, Eradication, Dyspepsia, Tetracycline, Levofloxacin

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