Menstrual and Reproductive Factors and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Women

Sahar Masoudi, Zahra Momayez Sanat, Altun Mahmud Saleh, Neda Nozari, Neda Ghamarzad, Akram Pourshams



Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a deadly disease with a 5-year survival of less than 5%.  Worldwide PC incidence rates are lower among women than men. While this suggests a protective role for steroid hormones in PC risk, results from epidemiological studies are not consistent.


153 new incident PC cases and 202 controls were recruited from a prospective case–control study, running in a referral center for endoscopic ultrasonography during 2011-2017. A structured valid and reliable questionnaire was used for data collection by a few trained interviewers. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for reproductive factors and PC were estimated using logistic regression methods.


Mean age (SD) of the cases and the controls were 63.18 (11.4) and 63.37 (12.0) years, respectively. Age at menarche, age at menopause, number of parity, gravidity, and abortion were not associated with PC risk.


This study does not support the hypothesis that menstrual and reproductive factors are associated with PC risk.


Pancreas cancer, Women, Reproductive History

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